Jak jsem byl v roce 1989 ve vězení
17.11.2016

In the absence of sea ice, enhanced atmospheric energy flux is effective at warming high latitudes—though not to the extent of amplifying that warming relative to low latitudes. The moving fluid creates a space devoid of downstream-flowing fluid on the downstream side of the object. The mean meridional circulation contributes only minimally to extratropical latent energy flux, and not at all poleward of 50° latitude. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses). A key point to understanding the results is the proportionality between dry static energy flux and the meridional temperature gradient, consistent with the diffusive closures of this flux. 2014). Our goals are to understand (i) how the compensation between dry and latent energy fluxes varies with the magnitude and structure of polar amplification and (ii) how the circulation mediates the nonlinear interaction between surface albedo and lapse rate feedbacks.

From an energy balance perspective, Arctic amplification of surface warming relative to lower latitudes may be caused by either local positive feedback mechanisms, convergence of heat from other latitudes, or reduction in heat taken up by the ocean, whether by storage or ocean dynamics. Climatologically, the poleward extent of the Ferrel cell ranges between 54° (αi = 0.3) and 63° (αi = 0.5) latitude for the aquaplanet simulations; under warming, the edge migrates to 60° in all experiments.

In both CMIP5 as well as in our aquaplanet experiments, anomalous divergence (i.e., reduced convergence) of atmospheric energy flux occurs in polar regions for simulations that exhibit strong polar amplification. Herein, projected changes in circulation are investigated in a simplified model framework and compared to more comprehensive coupled ocean–atmosphere models. The simulation with the greatest Arctic amplification (24-K local warming), representing a transition from perennial to ice-free conditions, exhibits a marked decrease in atmospheric energy flux convergence at the sea ice margin. In contrast, in the other experiments the latent energy flux dominates and the high latitudes experience uninterrupted anomalous convergence of energy flux by the transient eddies. Climate, 30, 9213–9224, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0706.1. Simulated climate responses are characterized by a wide range of polar amplification (from none to nearly 15-K warming, relative to the low latitudes) under CO2 quadrupling.

2a). SST anomalies associated with cold eddies cause a deceleration of surface wind, a reduction in latent and sensible heat fluxes, and declines in cloud liquid water, water vapor content, and rain rate. Thus, the lapse rate feedback transitions from negative to positive from the equator to the poles.

In a general sense, waves are typically the motions which have a well-defined dispersion relation, e.g., Rossby waves. Hence, a poleward expansion of the Ferrel cell manifests as an anomalous equatorward energy flux by the MMC, and a narrowing of the Ferrel cell as an anomalous poleward energy flux (cf. Flying through wildfire smoke plumes could improve smoke forecasts, Ninety years of data shows global warming impacts on foundation of marine ecosystems, New mineral from the moon could explain what happens in the Earth's mantle, What causes the weather?

Mean meridional circulation 2.

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